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First Settlers of Texas

Fort Houston

Fort Houston

Named Pleiades Orion Lumpkin at birth, it is no wonder that this son of Wilson Lumpkin, Governor of Georgia and instigator of the Cherokee Trail of Tears, preferred to go by Dan. He grew up in Morgan County, Georgia. He attended West Point but has the distinction of receiving more demerits than anyone and flunked out in his first year. His demerits overflowed onto the pristine adjacent page of Robert E. Lee.

Dan’s best friend was Wash (George Washington) Browning. Although Dan’s father was illustrious,

Wilson Lumpkin

Wilson Lumpkin

having been the author of the Trail of Tears and also governor of Georgia Wilson Lumpkin, Wash’s father was just plain rich, owning 10000 acres of land in Morgan County at what is now known as Browning Shoals.

The two boys fell in love with two sisters – Margarett and Flora Wilkerson – my 3rd great aunts. The happy couples were married in a joint ceremony in 1830 in my home town of La Grange, GA. The two young couples migrated west in about 1834, their first objective a brief gold rush in northern Alabama.  Other members of their families also migrated in that direction.

By the following year, they had made the trip west to the territory which is now Texas. They are listed in “The First Settlers of Houston County, Texas”. The two young men arrived just in time to take place in the Battle of San Jacinto, and like all other combatants, were awarded land.They settled in the area that is just north of Palestine and was later named Mound Prairie.

When the two young couples arrived in what is now Anderson County, the Kickapoo Indians were raiding regularly and they had to take shelter in Fort Houston, a log affair about 40 x 40 in size. That must have been harrowing with young children. This is about the same time that Sarah Ann Parker was abducted. There were raids and terrible killings by the Indians.

Stephen Austin

Stephen Austin

The two young fathers along with their neighbors signed a letter to Steven Austin pleading for help in defending their families against the raids.

The two young men began as farmers, but as time progressed Wash practiced law, bought the rights to a mail delivery route and became wealthy.  Dan was very charismatic and dabbled in politics, as can be seen by the information below.  Interestingly enough, even though he never held the military title, he was referred to as “Major”.

Once he settled down to farming in 1850, he was instrumental in founding the Mound Prairie Academy, in the now extant town of Mound Prairie which was about eight miles north of Palestine.  He died in 1859, just before the Civil War.

Wash, on the other hand, fell prey to ‘gold dust fever’ and organized a party to head to the ’49 Gold Rush in California. Along the way he fell sick with Typhoid Fever and died on the trail, somewhere in what is now New Mexico.

The Civil War was hard on Margarett and the children of the two couples. Margarett lost two sons, both killed just before the war ended. Flora had died in 1857 and two of Wash and Flora’s daughters died during the war, probably from the deprivation caused by the war.

From the Texas Historical Association:

LUMPKIN, PLEIADES O. (?–?). Pleiades O. Lumpkin, soldier, legislator, and jurist, was in Texas during the revolution and served in Capt. L. H. Mabbit’s company from April 24 to July 24, 1836. In the spring of 1837 he signed a petition requesting that Nacogdoches County be split into two counties. In 1837 and 1838 he represented Houston County in the Second Texas Congress. In the House journal he is referred to as Major Lumpkin; although there is no record of his having attained that rank in the Texas army, a P. O. Lumpkin received a bounty warrant for 320 acres for service between April 24 and July 24, 1836. On January 23, 1839, Lumpkin was elected chief justice of Houston County. He resigned that office on March 12 to become government agent to aid in selecting and surveying a permanent site for the capital of the republic. By joint vote of the Fifth Congress on January 31, 1840, he was appointed one of three commissioners to inspect the land offices east of the Brazos. He resigned the position a short time later. He represented Houston County at the Convention of 1845, after which he seems to have retired from public life. The 1850 census listed him as a farmer in Anderson County.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Armistead Albert Aldrich, The History of Houston County, Texas (San Antonio: Naylor, 1943). Houston County Historical Commission, History of Houston County, Texas, 1687–1979 (Tulsa, Oklahoma: Heritage, 1979). Texas House of Representatives, Biographical Directory of the Texan Conventions and Congresses, 1832–1845 (Austin: Book Exchange, 1941)

 

History of Anderson County, Texas

Relationship: Husband of second great grand aunt

The United States, as part of the mislabeled Florida Purchase Treaty of 1819, abandoned its tentative claims to territory that included what would eventually become Texas. Three years later, due largely in part to civil unrest within the mother country, Mexico gained its independence from Spain. In August, 1821, Stephen Fuller Austin was authorized by the Mexican government to enact the colonization enterprise first planned by his father, Moses Austin, before his death. By December of the same year the first colonists began to arrive in Texas. Widespread mortgage foreclosure because of the economic panic of 1819, and changes to the Land Act in 1820 made settlers eager to move to Austin’s colony. The conditions of the grant said that Austin would get three hundred American families, of the established Roman Catholic faith, to immigrate to the Texas territory, and that they would become properly Mexicanized. These conditions were generally ignored. Several other colonies were soon started by others, but Stephen Austin remained the main driving force behind the American colonization of Mexican Texas.

In 1826, the Mexican government gave David G. Burnet a grant to form a colony in the eastern part of Texas, which included an area that many years later would become Anderson County. In recent years the Mexican government had been making it more and more difficult to start new non-Catholic churches within its territories, although it did not interfere as much with already established churches. Rev. Daniel Parker, who was interested in starting a Protestant church in Texas, consulted with Stephen F. Austin,and in 1833 brought a group of 25 Primitive Baptist families from Illinois to Texas. They decided to call themselves the Pilgrim Predestinarian Regular Baptist Church and settled on the San Pedro Creek, near what is now the town of Grapeland, in Houston County, where they built a fort that became known as Brown’s Fort. John Parker, Rev. Parker’s brother, decided to move his family and three others 75 miles west to the Navasota River to establish Parker’s Fort, which is now a state park in Limestone County, roughly 32 miles east of Waco.

In early June, 1835, Joseph Jordan and William Ewing bought some land, two miles southeast of present day Palestine, at a spot now known as the John H. Reagan home site. A town called Houston was started there and by order of Gen. Sam Houston, a fort was built in the public square. The fort was naturally enough called Fort Houston. On 02 November 1835, Texas declared its right to secede from Mexico. The Mexican dictator,Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna declared Texas a state in revolt and began a military campaign of suppression. On 23 February 1836 a small mission fort in south central Texas called San Antonio de Valero, now commonly known as the Alamo, was attacked by units of the Mexican army. Santa Anna directed his army to ruthlessly slaughter the group of hopelessly out numbered Texas rebels after they refused to surrender the fort. Accompanied by cries of “Remember the Alamo”, an army of outraged Texans, led by Sam Houston,defeated Santa Anna and his army on 21 April 1836 at San Jacinto (Dan Lumpkin and Wash Browning fought in this battle). Texas independence was proclaimed a short time later and the new country was named “The Republic of Texas”.

Santa Anna’s attacks destroyed most of the American settlements west of the Trinity River and many survivors fled to Fort Houston for protection.Some of the Parker colonists returned to Parker’s Fort shortly after Santa Anna’s defeat. On 19 May 1836, Parker’s Fort was attacked by Commanche Indians and nearly all of the families were killed.  A couple survivors were captured and the rest fled back to Fort Houston.

In 1838, Rev. Daniel Parker, who had moved north of Brown’s Fort to build his home in an area near present-day Elkhart, helped build a small, single room church near his home. The church, now called “Old Pilgrim”, is the oldest Protestant church in Texas. In October of the same year, Gen. Thomas Rusk was informed that hostile Indians were camped at a place called Kickapoo, near what is now Frankston, in northeastern Anderson County. At the time he was marching with over two hundred men to Fort Houston to fight marauding Mexicans and Indians. His successful raid of the Indian camp, which ended Indian hostilities in eastern Texas for the rest of that year, was the only large scale battle against hostile Indians recorded within Anderson County.

Six years after the Kickapoo battle, on 29 December 1845,Texas was annexed into the union as the 28th state. The area which would become Anderson County was first formed as part of Houston County, but on 24 March 1846, the First Legislature of the state of Texas responded to a petition presented by settlers from around the Fort Houston area to create a new county, which was created from the upper part of Houston County.The new county lay between the Trinity and Neches rivers, and had an area of 1,077 square miles, making it the 52nd largest of the 254 counties in Texas.

It was suggested that the county be named Burnet, in honor of David G. Burnet, but instead it was named Anderson, after Kenneth Lewis Anderson, Vice-President of the Republic of Texas from 1844 until the state’s annexation. The same act passed by Legislature that created Anderson County also stated that its seat had to be within three miles of the geographic center of the county. Strong competition broke out between the towns of Fort Houston and Mound Prairie, both wanting to claim the privilege of being the county seat. The county was organized on 13 July 1846 and Fort Houston served as the county seat. A month later it was found that Fort Houston was too far off the center of the county, so a committee, composed of ‘Dan’ Lumpkin, William Turner Sadler, and John Parker was appointed to find and lay out the site for a new county seat.

During the same time as the county was being organized, two merchants, William Bigelow and J.R. Fulton, ran a general store on the 525 acres of land they owned where the city of Palestine is now located. Seeing a chance to increase the value of their holdings, Bigelow, Fulton,and Fulton’s wife, Selina, offered the committee 100 acres of their land, located in the center of the county, for $500. The Commissioner’s Court decided to accept the Fulton-Bigelow offer. A new town was surveyed and laid out by Johnston Shelton, who filed his maps at the county clerk’s office in August, 1846. John Parker suggested that the new town be named after his family’s former home of Palestine in Crawford County, Illinois. This was agreeable and so the new Anderson County seat got its name.

Between 1850 and 1855 the slave population had more than tripled in Anderson County. It is recorded that when the Anderson County vote was taken to decide if Texas should secede from the union, only seven out of roughly 1500 voters opposed secession. Texas seceded from the union on 01 Feb 1861 and in April of 1861 the first group of volunteer troops left Anderson County. A county judge, John H. Reagan, who was later to be a major driving force in the expansion of Anderson County after the war,was a cabinet member of the Confederate government, serving as the postmaster general. The civil war ended in April, 1865, but most of the population in Texas did not hear the news until the following month. Strong anti-federalist feelings continued to dominate Anderson County, even after the war’s end. The slow, months-long return trip home of Anderson County’s surviving Confederate soldiers only helped to prolong the county’s anti-federalist feelings.

The 1870 census showed a population of 9,229 people in Anderson County. During the next ten years the population would almost double in size, due mainly to the railroad lines coming to the county. The International,the first railroad to come to Anderson County, reached Palestine on 11 July 1872. This marked the end of the ‘riverboat’ era, which had previously been the main source of commercial transportation for the county. On 30 September 1873 the International merged with the Houston and Great Northern.This was an important part of the country’s railroad network and marked a booming railway era for the entire county, but especially for the city of Palestine. By the time of the 1880 census the population of Palestine had doubled to more than 4,000 people. Anderson County’s total population had nearly doubled to 17,395.

Agricultural produce dominated Anderson County from 1880 to 1940, even though traces of oil were found in the county in 1881. In 1902 the first rotary rig was shipped to the county but the first successful oil well wasn’t produced until 1928. The discovery brought prosperity and helped lessen the impact of the Great Depression on the county during the 1930’s, unlike other less fortunate areas of the state.

 

The History of Houston County, TX

Relationship: Husband of second great grand aunt

 by:  Armistead Albert Aldrich – “The History of Houston County Texas” – 1943

 

“AN EARLY SKETCH OF CROCKETT”

“Unlike most historians, who depend upon preceding writers for their materials, the Oldest Inhabitant himself contemporary with Crockett, is enabled to note its rise and progress, free from the melancholy task of recording its decline and fall.

“Crockett was located at the county site of Houston County, in the winter of 1837, owing to its position to its being the only point within a reasonable distance of the San Antonio Road, and the center of the county, where running water could be found.

“It was emphatically a frontier village, but three hours ride from the buffalo range; for several years Indian outrages were committed in its vicinity. The Coshattas hunted on the South, the Cherokees joined the county on the East, while North and West the wild or Prairie Indians penetrated the sparse settlements almost unperceived, and too generally unpunished.

“A very narrow chain of settlements along the San Antonio road, formed the connection with the white population of Texas. This road, as is well known, passes through the poorest and worst watered portion of Houston County, giving no promise of a better country to the passing stranger.

“Distance from market (Trinity not being then navigated) danger from Indians and the usual inconvenience of a frontier country, long retarded the settlement of the county and the growth of the village.

“Although a log courthouse and jail were erected and the liberality of the legislature had granted a charter providing for the election of a mayor, eight aldermen, a town clerk, etc. yet for some months the solitary citizen, who kept a store in a 16-foot log cabin, was daily asked, ‘How far to Crockett?’

“‘You are right in the public square of Crockett now, Stranger,’ was the answer.

“In 1839 there were two resident families, and the danger from Indians was so urgent that the neighbors fortified the courthouse lot with pickets and took sheIter with their families until immediate danger had passed over.

“For two years the sittings of the district court were suspended, during which time cases of assault and battery were so multiplied that succeeding grand juries declined to notice them.

“Card playing (not then prohibited) and quarter racing, were the favorite amusements on public days. The eastern and western mails arrived on an average of twice a month. The northern mail for Fort Houston was sent whenever there was a chance, and then generally in the crown of a hat.  The Galveston mail was once suspended for five months, and at last arrived in coffee sacks on an ox wagon.

“Sassafras tea, rye coffe, milk and whiskey, were the only beverages that could be depended on, as coffee frequently could not be had at any price.  In the way of diet, steel mill bread and jerked beef were the great staples.

“The telegraph has entered our town, a substantial brick courthouse has just been completed, the Masonic Hall, Temple of Honor, and free church are well attended; six stores, two taverns, a boot and shoemaker and saddler’s shop accommodate the public; professional gentlemen offer their services to clients and patients, our bricklayers are busy and all the usual means and appliances of civilized life may be found in our village.”

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More than a century after the abandonment of the old Spanish Mission, that part of Nacogdoches County which afterwards became Houston County, began to be settled by colonists in Vehlin’s Colony.  Many of these obtained titles from the Mexican Government before the creation of Houston County, and quite a number of them fought in the Battle of San Jacinto and are entitled to be numbered with the heroes of that great decisive battle in the history of Texas.  Many of their names appear on the following document, which was a prelude to the creation of the county.  This is a historic document and deserves a place in the history of the county.  Many of the men whose names appear on this document were prominent citizens in the later development of the county.  It is as follows:

   Mustang Prairie, April 22nd, 1837

     “To the Honorable the Senate and House of Representatives when in Congress Assembled:

     “We, the undersigned, your petitioners, citizens of said republic do most respectfully pray that your honorable body make for us a county on the East side of Trinity River, beginning at Robbins Ferry on said Trinity; Thence running fifteen miles each side of the old San Antonio Road and East far enough to make a constitutional county, and we do further pray that your honorable body appoint three disinterested commissioners out of the bounds of said county to locate the seat of justice for said county in granting the aforesaid petition, we, your petitioners as duty bound will ever pray, etc.

Iredell Reding

John B. Reding

Geo. W. Reding

James L. Gossett

Wm. L. Gossett

Elisha Clapp

John Wortham

John Hallmark

William Dillard

John V. D. Gossett

Jacob Masters

John Box

Stephen Crist

Reason Crist

William Anglin

Robin Brown

Richard Eaton

Thomas Denson

Nelson Box

P.O. Lumpkin

John C. Moore

John Allbright

Jacob Allbright

Barton Clark

James L. Gossett

E. Gossett

John L. Hall

Stephen White

Alfred Buge

Leon Pritchard

Thomas G. Box

Samuel C. Collison

R.A. Walker

Henry Masters

John Erwin

Chas. Erwin

H. C. Johnson

Williard Standley

William Cheairs

W. C. Standley

John Cheairs

John F. Cheairs

Elijah Cheairs

Frances Cheairs

John Denson

Joseph M. Masters

William Leagon

John H. Holder

Enaske Lapus

Albert Allbright

Ira C. Shute

Jas. Barns

William Johnson

Ballin Snelles

R. O. Lusk

Joseph Masterson

G.E. Dwight

Samuel Clerlosky

Stephen Bennett

Elish Anglin

Miles Bennett

Joseph Jorden

Stephen Box

Collin Aldrich

Henry P. Crowson

Isaac Parker

Thos. Garner

Dickerson Parker

J. Haley

Benjamin Parker

H. Barrett

Peterson Tate

J. D. Parker

Geo. W. Robinson

A. E. Gossett

Geo. Hallmark

Daniel Parker, Jr.

H. P. Walker

Wm. H. Pate

Peter Gallahery

John C. Hayne

John B. (illegible)

James Neville

Stephen Dunston

Swanson Yarbrough

Frances Bettit

Shedrick Denson

Wm. Riley

John Allbright

Solomon Allbright

Joseph Lapus

W. M. White

Martin Murchison

                                     “APPROVED: June 12, 1837  – “SAM HOUSTON”

A careful examination of the Act of Congress of the Republic of Texas creating Houston County will show that it was, at the beginning, a very large county, and covered all of the territory now embraced within the bounds together with all of Trinity County and all of Anderson County and a large portion of Henderson County. The reader should refer to a map of the State of Texas as it existed in 1836, for a clearer understanding of the territory embraced within the original limits of the county.  It might be a matter of interest to the people of Houston County to think of the extent of the jurisdiction exercised by the first officers of Houston County. The chief justices of the county courts of Houston County from 1838 when they were first chosen, to the creation of Anderson County in 1846, exercised jurisdiction over all that territory now em­braced in Anderson County and the Southern part of Henderson County and in Trinity County. On March 24, 1846, Anderson County was created out of Houston County and it will be interesting to observe the boundaries as set out in the Acts of Con­gress creating that county which are as follows:

“Beginning at a place in the County of Houston, known as Houston Mound, about one mile North of Murchison’s Prairie; Thence Westwardly by a direct line running through the old Ionie village, on the North Elkhart Creek to the Trinity River; Thence, beginning again at Houston’s Mound, continuing said direct line Eastwardly to the Neches River; Thence, up said river with the meanders thereof to the Northeast corner of John Ferguson’s League of land; Thence, by direct line parallel to the first above-named line, to the Trinity River; Thence down said river with the meanders thereof, to the intersection of said first named line with the Trinity River.”

     It will be noticed that one of the landmarks which must have been well known in that early day, was known as Houston’s Mound, and is located about a mile North of Murchison’s Prairie. Both of these localities must have been well known in the very early stages of Texas History. Recently an oil well was drilled very near Houston’s Mound, just across the line in Anderson County, and in reaching it the roadway led across the historic elevation known as Houston’s Mound. Evidently Houston’s Mound was so-called and named in honor of Sam Houston.

On the 17th day of April, 1846, the County of Henderson was created out of portions of Counties of Houston, and Nacogdoches and in the Act creating it is defined as follows:

“Commencing at the Northeast corner of Anderson County, on the Neches River; THENCE North with the Western Bound­ary lines of the counties of Cherokee and Smith, to the Sabine River; Thence down said river to the Southwest corner of Upshur County; Thence North with the Western Boundary line of said Upshur County to the Southern boundary line of Titus County; Thence, West with the Southern boundary of said county, to the county of Hopkins; and Thence, continuing West with the Southern boundary line of said Hopkins and Hunt counties, to the Northeast corner of said Dallas County; Thence South with the Eastern boundary line of said Dallas County, to its Southeast corner; Thence West with the Southern boundary line of said county to the Trinity River; Thence down said Trinity River to the Northwest corner of said Anderson County, and Thence East with the Northern boundary line of Anderson County, to the place of beginning.”

After the creation of both Anderson and Henderson Counties in 1846, Houston County continued to exist, embracing all the territory known as Houston and Trinity Counties until February 11, 1850, when the County of Trinity was created including the following boundaries:

Beginning in the East bank of Trinity River, at the lower corner of Henry Golmon’s survey of 980 acres; Thence North 21Y2 degrees East to the Neches River; Thence down said river with its meanders to the present Southeast corner of Houston County; Thence Westwardly with the South boundary line of said county to the Trinity River; Thence up said river with its meanders to the place of beginning.

On January 26, 1850, by an Act of the Legislature of the State of Texas, the boundary line between Houston and Anderson Counties was more definitely defined as follows:

Beginning at a place in the County of Houston, known as. Houston’s Mound, about one mile North of Murchison’s Prairie; Thence Westwardly, by direct line running through the old Ionie Village on the North Elkhart Creek, to the East Boundary line of Samuel C. Boxe’s Headright League; Thence South with said line to the South boundary line of said league to the Trinity River.

A curious freak of legislation should prove of interest to the people of Houston County. On the 6th day of December, 1841 the Congress of the Republic of Texas passed an act which proved to be an abortive effort to create a county known as Burnet out of Houston County, which Act in part is as follows:

Sec. I. Be it enacted by the senate and house of representa­tives of the Republic of Texas in Congress assembled, That the boundary of Burnet be, and is hereby established within the following boundaries, to-wit:

Beginning at a place known by the name of Houston’s Mound, North of Murchison’s Prairie; Thence Westwardly, to the Iron-Eye village, on Elkhart Creek; Thence to the Trinity River; and from Houston’s Mound (the place of beginning) to the Neches River, so as to make a straight line from the Trinity River to the Neches River; Thence up the main West form of the Neches River to Clarence A. Lovejoy’s Survey, No. 177, on the West boundary line of the Cherokee lands; Thence due North to the Sabine River; Thence up the Sabine to the fork; Thence up the North fork, to E. W. Shultz Survey, continuing up the same to the Fannin County line; Thence West with said line to the Trinity River; Thence down said Trinity River to the above-named line running direct from the Neches to the Trinity.

Sec. 2. Be it further enacted, That Fort Houston is hereby permanently established as the seat of justice for said county.

So far as. the record shows no effort was made to organize the county of Burnet under the foregoing Act, and later another county was created in Western Texas that is now known as the County of Burnet. The singular feature of the above Act of Congress is the fact that it designated Fort Houston as the county seat of the county, without giving the people residing in the county the opportunity to locate and designate the county seat. It is also a matter of interest to the people of Houston County that the Fort Houston mentioned in the foregoing Act is located at the home of Judge John H. Reagan, a few miles Southwest of Palestine, and was originally located in the County of Houston.

After the County of Houston was duly organized by the selection of county officers and the selection of Crockett as the county seat, the town was incorporated by an Act of the Republic of Texas, December 29, 1837.

Even before Houston County was created as a county and Crockett designated as its county seat, there was some postoffices and a mail service in the territory that is now known as Houston County. The first of these was known as Aldrich in 1836, before the organization of the county and the post-office records show that Collin Aldrich was postmaster. This postoffice later became known as Mustang Prairie, for we find from the records that in 1840 Mustang Prairie was named as a postoffice, but no name of the postmaster was given. However, in 1843, Mustang Prairie named as a post-office and George Hallmark as postmaster. This George Hallmark was the ancestor of all the Hallmarks in Houston County.

In 1843 Alabama is listed as a postoffice in Houston County and James M. Caldwell was postmaster.  In 1840 Crockett is named as a postoffice but no one is named postmaster. In 1843 Thomas P. Collins appears on the record to have been the postmaster. In 1838 Randolph, in Houston County, is named as a postoffice with Nathan as postmaster. If there were other postoffices in that early day the author is unable to find any record of them.

OFFICERS

The first county officers of Houston County, probably elected or chosen in September, 1837, were Collin Aldrich, Chief Justice; James Madden, sheriff; Stephen White, clerk of the district court; Jacob Allbright, county clerk; John Grigsby, John Gregg, Elijah Gossett and John Box were chosen as justices of the peace, but it is probable that they did not serve.

 

Later officers selected January 1, 1839, were S. E. Kennedy, William Dillard and R. W. Box, justices of the peace. Martin A. Walker was chosen as sheriff; John H. Kirchoffer was presi­dent of the Board of Land Commissioners of Houston County, and Elijah Gossett and John Wortham were associate land commissioners for the county. Samuel G. Wells was clerk of the Board of Land Commissioners and George Aldrich, County Surveyor. On January 23, 1839 P. O. Lumpkin was chosen chief justice for Houston County, and was commissioned on January 25, 1839, but promptly resigned. After his resignation, on March 12, 1839, John H. Kirchoffer was chosen and commis­sioned as chief justice of Houston County and resigned in June 1839. On February 4, 1839, G. W. Browning, C. T. McKenzie and R. R. Russell were chosen as justices of the peace. On June 28, 1839, John Collins was chosen and commissioned as chief justice of Houston County. On June 22, Mobley Rhone and Stephen White were chosen as justices of the peace on Beat No. 4, and were Commissioned on July 4, 1839. On June 22, 1839, A. T. Hallmark was constable for some unnamed precinct in Houston County.

 

On February 3, 1840, John Collins was chosen Chief Justice and resigned on January 24, 1841. On February 4, 1840, Andrew E. Gossett was commissioned as sheriff of Houston County, hav­ing been elected on September 14, 1839. On February 4, 1840, Waller Dickerson was commissioned as district clerk of Houston County, having been elected September 14, 1839. On February 4, 1839 Edley T. Powell and John Pettitt were chosen justices ot the peace for Beat No.9, and held the same until January 8, 1842. On February 12, 1842, Elijah Gossett was again elected chief justice of Houston County. On February 4, 1840 Stillwell Box was elected justice of the peace for the Crockett district. On February 3, 1840, Barton Clark and Leonard Williams were appointed commissioners to inspect the land office in Houston County. On April 18, 1840, John S. Martin was elected sheriff of Houston County, and Eli Meade at the same time was elected clerk of the district court. At the same election William S. Mc­Donald was elected justice of the peace for the first precinct. On February 19, 1841, Jowell Clapp and W. D. Longstreet were commissioned justices of the peace for beat No.3, having been elected on October 24, 1840. On February 13, 1841, T. D. Tompkins and G. G. Alford were commissioned justices of the peace for Beat No.5, having been elected November 7, 1840. On February 13, 1841 Y. G. Dollahite and W. M. Johnson were commissioned justices of the peace of Beat No.4 of Houston County, having been elected Nov. 7, 1840. On February 13, 1841, George Hallmark and W. Hallmark were commissioned justices of the peace for beat No.2 of Houston County having been elected on November 14, 1840. On February 13, 1841, Cyrus H. Randolph was commissioned as justice of the peace of Beat No.1, having been elected December 21, 1840. On April 26, 1841, George Aldrich was commissioned as county surveyor, having been elected on September 7, 1840.

On October 6, 1841, George H. Prewitt, was commissioned as justice of the peace, Beat No.3, having been elected September 6,1841. On October 27, 1841, Stephen H. Hatten and Nathaniel D. Acock were commissioned justices of the peace for Beat No. 10, having been elected September 18, 1841. On December 25, 1841 Lodovik E. Downs was elected district clerk of Houston County. On September 5, 1842, George Aldrich was elected County Surveyor of Houston County and was commissioned on April II, 1843. On September 24, 1842, Samuel G. Wells was elected justice of the peace of Precinct No.6, Houston County; He was commissioned April II, 1843 and resigned March 18, 1844. On December 24, 1842 George W. Grant was elected jus­tice of the peace of Precinct No.3 of Houston County and was commissioned April II, 1843. On December 24, 1842, David Barrett and G. G. Alford were elected justices of the peace, Pre­cinct No.5 of Houston County and were commissioned on April II, 1843. On February 6, 1843, Joseph P. Burnett was elected sheriff of Houston County and was commissioned April II, 1843. On February 6, 1843, Cyrus H. Randolph was elected coroner of Houston County and was commissioned April II, 1843. On February 4, 1843 Turner S. Parker was elected justice of the peace, Precinct No. 7 of Houston County and was commissioned on April II, 1843.

On February 18, 1843 George Luster was elected justice of the peace, Precinct No. I, Houston County, and was commis­sioned April II, 1843, and resigned February 7, 1844. On March 4, 1843 William M. Johnson was elected Justice of the Peace for Precinct No. 4 of Houston County; was commissioned on April 26, 1843 and resigned on January 13, 1844. On March 4, 1843 William Z. McLane was elected justice of the peace of Precinct No.4, and was commissioned April 26, 1843. On March 18, 1943 Christopher Ellis was elected justice of the peace of Precinct No. 10, and “was commissioned April 16, 1843. On April 8, 1843 S. E. Kennedy and James J. Thomas were elected justices of the peace, Precinct No.8, Houston County, and were commissioned April 26, 1843. On April 8, 1843 James R. Brack­en was elected justice of the peace for Precinct No.9, and was commissioned April 26, 1843. On May 20, 1843, Jacob Allbright was elected justice of the peace, Precinct No.3, and commis­sioned July 31, 1843. On November 13, 1843, Waller Dickerson was elected county surveyor of Houston County and commis­sioned on December 4, 1843.

On November 13, 1843, Cyrus H. Randolph was elected chief justice of Houston County and commissioned December 4, 1843. On December 23, 1843, William Lane was elected justice of the peace Precinct No. I, commissioned December 29, 1843. His term expired and he was re-elected. On December 23, 1843, F. D. Bodenhamer was elected justice of the peace, Precin’ct No. 8, and commissioned on December 29, 1843. On January 1, 1844, George W. Grant and George G. Alford were elected as associate justices for Houston County. On January 20, 1844, H. W. Neville and Alexander C. Thornberg were elected justices of the peace, Precinct No. 10 and commissioned February 1, 1844. On February 17, 1844, Horatio Nelson was elected justice of the peace Precinct No.1, and commissioned March 8, 1844. On March 18, 1844, Clinton A. Rice was elected justice of the peace, Precinct No. 4 and commissioned April 6, 1844. On March 30, 1844, Richard R. Powers was elected justice of the peace, Precinct No.6, and commissioned April 6, 1844. On May 16, 1844, John Blair was commissioned as assessor of taxes and on May 14, was appointed county treasurer. On September 21, 1844, Samuel G. Well was appointed justice of the peace and commissioned October 31, 1844. On December 24, 1844, Albert G. Barnett and Henry W. Ward were elected justice of the peace for Precinct No.5 and were commissioned February 17, 1845. On December 24, 1844, Robert W. Caldwell was elected justice of the peace for Precinct No.3, and commissioned Feb- ruary 17, 1845. On December 30, 1844, R. G. Green was elected justice of the peace Precinct No. 1 and commissioned February 17, 1845. On January 6, 1845, Thomas P. Collins was elected county treasurer and commissioned on January 21, 1845. On February 3, 1845 Joseph P. Burnett was elected Sheriff and com­missioned November 22, 1845. On February 3, 1845, James R. Bracken was elected coroner and commissioned on November 22, 1845. On February 3, 1845, George Hallmark, Sr. was elected justice of the peace, Precinct No.2, and commissioned February 27, 1845. On June 4, 1845, John Blair was elected justice of the peace, Precinct No. 10, and commissioned July 4, 1845. On June 4, 1845 George H. Prewitt was elected justice of the peace, Precinct No.3 and commissioned July 4, 1845. On October 4, 1845, James H. Gillespie was elected County Clerk of Houston County and commissioned December 17, 1845. On November 13, 1845, Waller Dickerson was elected county surveyor of Houston County. On January 7, 1846, William Lane was elected justice of the peace, Precinct No. 1 and commissioned February 4, 1846.

Mound Prairie Institute

Relationship: The children of my great grand aunts, Maggie Wilkinson Lumpkin and Flora Wilkinson Browning attended this school.  Maggie’s husband, Dan, was instrumental in founding it.

By Bonner Frizzell

In the fall of 1852 a school opened up at Mound Prairie, eight miles northeast of Palestine, in Anderson County, which was destined to become one of the most famous institutions of learning of its time in Texas. It began in a small one-room house with one teacher; but it grew rapidly, and in two or there years the faculty numbered five teachers, and students attended from all parts of the state.

The school lasted only nine years, (1852-61), falling a victim to the war, like so many other institutions of the day. At first, only boys were admitted, but in 1857 the doors of the institution were opened to girls, and during the remaining four years of its existence,
the school was co-educational. (W. H. Gaston and C. H. Bussey; Personal Interviews)

The founder of the school was Rev. J. R. Malone, a Baptist minister, and a gentleman of high scholastic attainments. Mr. Malone was not only the founder of the school but he continued as President of the Institution throughout the entire nine years of its existence. The school was
chartered, the charter bearing the date of January 9, 1854. A board of nine trustees provided for in the charter, the following gentlemen being named as members: J. A. Lawrence, J. S. Hanks, R. K. Gaston, J. S. Morrow, L. W. Dalton, R. E. Cox, A. McCane, P. O. Lumpkin, and John Billups.

The charter provided that the school should be a “college Proper,” and that the board of
trustees should have power to confer degrees, grant diplomas, establish professorships, make and enforce rules and regulations, and establish a system of scholarships. The charter also contained the provision that nothing should be so construed as to militate against the rights and powers of James R. Malone, A.M., founder of the institute. (Gammel: Op. Cit., v.
3, P. 435)

That the school was to some extent under the care of the Baptist Church is evidenced by the following report of a committee on education to an Association of that Church:

“We have no male college, but we are proud to say that we have within our bound Mound Prairie Institute, which, in point of health, morals, and through instruction is behind none. The President, our beloved Brother J. R. Malone, has long since proved his ability and untiring application to all duties of his station; and having the assistance of those who are able,
pious, and loved by all, success is the result. The school is now in a prosperous condition and has a regular attendance of seventy-five students, and others are coming in.”

The institution seems to have reached its zenith about 1860. An announcement preceding the opening of the session of 1860-61 states that the school has a college charter with University powers; that the “usual degrees” are conferred; that number of male students for the preceding year was one hundred nine; that the course of study is full, the instruction thorough, and the discipline strict; that the health, morals, and religious privileges of Mound Prairie are unsurpassed; that only two boys will be allowed in the same room; that there will be no extra charge for Spanish in the future; and that tuition, fuel, furnished room, and washing cost
seventy-five dollars per session of twenty weeks.” (ibid, 1860)

No description of the building in which the Institute opened is available; but there is evidence that it was a very modest structure. A year or two after the school began, however, a commodious two-story frame building was erected at a cost of some five or six thousand dollars, the funds being raised by private subscription. In this building the school was carried on
until 1856, when a second building resembling the first was erected. The new building became the home of the Female Department, which was established in 1857, while the older building continued to serve the home of the Male Department. About the same time that this second building was erected, six dormitories were also built to accommodate the rapidly increasing boarding patronage. (W. H. Gaston and C. H. Bussey; Personal Interviews)

The following newspaper announcement, which appeared about the middle of the year 1860, throws a further light on the work of the Institute for that year:

MOUND PRAIRIE INSTITUTE
Faculty
Male Department
J. R. Malone, M.A., President and Professor of Latin, Greek, Spanish, Pure
Mathematics, and belles-lettres. Elder M. V. Smith, Professor of English
branches, natural sciences, and Mixed Mathematics. George W. Awalt, tutor.
Female Department
Miss M. A. E. Dickson, Principal and Instructor in the literary and
ornamental subjects and French.
Rates of Tuition
Music with use of instrument $15.00
Ornamental and Needle-work $15.00
Spanish $20.00
French $20.00
Drawing and Painting $10.00
Declamations and Compositions four Fridays in every month
The President is prepared to take forty boarders in dormitories on his own land at the low price of fifty dollars a term of five months.
The present session closes January 10, and the next opens on the second Monday in August.
(Signed) J. R. Malone
(Texas Enquirer, January 7, 1860)

Teachers other than the above-mentioned that are remembered by old students are Wilson H. Lamb, Pickens Teague, Miss V. E. Bussey, Mrs. J. R. Malone, and Professor Myre and wife. The last two taught music for some time and are remembered as very skillful musicians. Among the students who afterwards wrought efficiently in the communities in which they lived were
W. H. Gaston, now of Dallas; C. H. Bussey, now of Hutchins, Texas; Lieutenant R. H. Gaston, W. L. Griggs, Martin V. Smith, A. C. Camp, Dr. J. B. Bussey, and Dr. J. R. Oldham. (W. H. Gaston and C. H. Bussey: Personal Interviews)

The success of the institution was due more to the ability and zeal of the President, Rev. J. R. Malone, than to any other one factor. He was born in Coffeyville, Alabama, January 10, 1824. He received a liberal education as a young man and then studied law; but after a short time he gave up his studies in this field and turned his attention to the ministry and to teaching. He came to Texas in 1852, at the age of twenty-eight, and began the work of building up the school with which his name was to be ever after inseparably linked. Besides being a great teacher, he was also a great preacher and a man among men. Almost every Sunday found him with a congregation in some church of the surrounding country. As a teacher, he was especially fond of English, Latin, and Greek. He was a great friend to the needy young man, and no one was ever turned away from Mound Prairie Institute for want of funds. He was a poor financier, and through his bad management his family was sometimes in want. He considered his life a failure; but those who knew him, especially his students, thought otherwise.

On leaving Mound Prairie, he went to Mexia and later to Dallas. He died in the latter city December 3, 1891. (Texas Historical and Biographical Magazine, v. II, p. 118)

The story of how Mound Prairie Institute came to the end of its way is an old one. The bugle blasts of war called the young men from books to battlefields, and thus the institution was left deserted. The commencement held in June 1861, marks the end. If there were any efforts made to continue the work of the institution after that, they were so feeble that their results have been erased from the memory of those best in a position to know them. Dilapidation and decay soon began their work, and what remained of the buildings were sold to the farmers of the community. (W. H. Gaston and C. H. Bussey: Personal Interview)

NAMES OF PESONS WHO ATTENDED THE MOUND PRAIRIE INSTITUTE

Post office Plenitude, Anderson County, Texas
Incorporated and Founded in 1854 by Prof. J. R. Malone

William Lumpkin
Martin Lumpkin
John Lumpkin
George Lumpkin
P. O. Lumpkin
Miss Martha Browning
Miss Mary Browning
Miss Flora Browning
James McCains
John McCains
Columbus McCains
Matt McCains
Martha McCains
Miss Emily Hanks
James Hanks
Brown Hanks
John Billups
Thos. Billups
Ala Billups
Anna Kirksey
John Kirksey
Mitch Gray
Robert Oldham
Henry Irwin
Mac Stover
Sam Brown
Ad Brown
Thos. Brown
Charlie Lawrence
Calhoun Lawrence
Miss Clem
Miss Mary Pinson
Miss Minnie Derden
Dick Derden
Miss Melinda Cox
Miss Mary Cox
Jack Cox
Carter McKenzie
Larkin McKinzie
Jube Gibson
Milam Gay
Martin V. Smith
Louis Goodman
Frank Bell
Mr. Bell from Denton
C. A. Rush
Fayett Reed
Lem Reed
James Reed
Miss M. Reed
Geo. Awalt
Miss Dickson Teacher
Laura Furlow
Ione Furlow
Chas. Bussey
Dr. John Bussey
Miss Fannie Bussey
Miss Madie Bussey
William Griggs
Chas. Griggs
Geo. H. Gaston
W. H. Gaston
Robert H. Gaston
Priscilla Gaston
J. R. Jones
John Jones
Thad Jones
Geo. Holmes
Angie Holmes
Rollin Box
Nancy Herrin
Geo. Hudson
Sudie Vannoy
John Herrington
Miss Martha Herrington
John Hodge
Stanford Hodge
Arelia Hodge
Tom Hogg
Jeb Tucker
Geo. McDonald
Pace McDonald
Miss McDonald
Billie Givens
John Fain
Tom Butler
John N. Parks
Cout King
Caro Quarles
Sarah Rawlins
Homer Echols
Jeff Rose
Mollie Rose
Wm. McClannahan
Lizzie McClannahan
John McElroy
Nat Witherspoon
Fred Horton
John Stevenson
Mattie Stevenson
Rollin Webb
Rube C. Miller

(Individuals in red are my cousins).

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Copyright. All rights reserved.
http://www.usgwarchives.net/copyright.htm

Transcribed by Nancy Crain
Submitted by Scott Fitzgerald – scottfitzgerald@tyler.net
East Texas Genealogical Society, Vice-President 26 May 2006

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Originally published in The Tracings, Volume 3, No. 1, Winter 1984, Pages
37-40 by the Anderson County Genealogical Society, copyright assigned to
the East Texas Genealogical Society.

Plea for Help

 
The letter below is signed by the husbands of my two great aunts, Flora and Maggie Wilkinson.  Their names are highlighted in red.

PLEA FOR HELP

FROM THE CITIZENS OF FORT HOUSTON

(Houston CO. “Now Anderson CO.TX”)
Addressed to : His Excellency, Samuel HOUSTON, Nacogdoches, Texas

 

Fort Houston, Aug. 25, 1838

To His Excellency, The Pres.

Sir

We the undersigned citizens of the town of Houston (Houston CO) & its vicinity, beg leave respectfully to represent to your excellency that our property has been stolen, our houses & farms infested and surrounded, our families alarmed & ourselves compelled to desert our homes on account of depredations committed by our Indian neighbors.

We further beg leave to suggest as our settled conviction that from our isolated situation and sparseness of our population, this settlement will be compelled to desert our property & homes unless some active & energetic measures are adopted to secure our property & protect our women and children from the tomahawk & scalping, or more cruel horror of Indian captivity, This subject is most respectfully submitted to the consideration to the Executive & some protection earnestly but strongly solicited in our truly unpleasant & distressing situation. The Indians who are doing mischief in this neighborhood are supposed to be principally the Kickapoo.

An early answer is requested as we do not feel safe to remain with our families in our present situation unless prompt measures are taken for our relief.

We have the honor to be
With great respect etc.
Your Obt. Sevts.

P.O. LUMPKIN
Leroy McKINZIE
John CRIST
W.L. McDONALD
R.C. DIXON
William SMITH
A. McKINSIE
A. G. PERSON
John SMITH
C. F. McINZA
Spencer HOBS
William CRAIGHEAY
John S. DELAY
O.H. DUNCAN
Stephen CRIST
W.B. SHEARER
L. ROBINSON
Jacob C. MORROW
M. Theo CARTER
John T. BROWN
J.M. (?)CARPENTER
W.M. FROST
H. USSURY
B. PERSON
George W. BROWNING

From: Rusk Paper, Stephen F. Austin Library, Nacogdoches, Texas

Pleaides Orion Lumpkin

LUMPKIN, PLEIADES O. (1808-1855). Pleiades O. Lumpkin, soldier, legislator, and jurist, was in Texas during the revolution and served in Capt. L. H. Mabbit’s company from April 24 to July 24, 1836.

In the spring of 1837 he signed a petition requesting that Nacogdoches County be split into two counties. In 1837 and 1838 he represented Houston County in the Second Texas Congress. In the House journal he is referred to as Major Lumpkin; although there is no record of his having attained that rank in the Texas army, a P. O. Lumpkin received a bounty warrant for 320 acres for service between April 24 and July 24, 1836.

On January 23, 1839, Lumpkin was elected chief justice of Houston County. He resigned that office on March 12 to become government agent to aid in selecting and surveying a permanent site for the capital of the republic. By joint vote of the Fifth Congress on January 31, 1840, he was appointed one of three commissioners to inspect the land offices east of the Brazos. He resigned the position a short time later.

He represented Houston County at the Convention of 1845, after which he seems to have retired from public life. The 1850 census listed him as a farmer in Anderson County.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Armistead Albert Aldrich, The History of Houston County, Texas (San Antonio: Naylor, 1943). Houston County Historical Commission, History of Houston County, Texas, 1687–1979 (Tulsa, Oklahoma: Heritage, 1979). Texas House of Representatives, Biographical Directory of the Texan Conventions and Congresses, 1832–1845 (Austin: Book Exchange, 1941).

Battle at Kickapoo Village

My great aunts were married to Dan Lumpkin and Wash Browning, two adventurous young Georgians who took their brides to the Mexican territory that became Anderson County, Texas.

Major General Rusk’s volunteer forces moved northeasterly from Fort Houston during the morning hours of October 15. The Texas forces moved across present Anderson County for the Neches River and the old Kickapoo village where Cordova’s rebels were rumored to be camping out.

Against an unknown number of enemy, Rusk had at his disposal about 260 men by best count. Some accounts claim that Rusk had up to seven hundred men with him on this campaign, which was later referred to as the Kickapoo War. In reality, his entire command amounted to only nine self-armed and provisioned companies under majors Leonard Mabbitt and Baley Walters of Nacogdoches. General Rusks’ small command staff included Major Issac Burton, the ranger captain who had captured the Mexican schooners in Copano Bay in 1836.

Also accompanying Rusk’s offensive expedition was Texas’ adjutant general, Colonel Hugh McLeod, who was eager to punish Cordova’s follwers.

Pleiades Orion (Dan) Lumpkin and his brother in law, George Washington (Wash) Browning were members of Captain Box’s mounted riflemen under Major Walters from October 14, 1838 to January 14, 1839.